March 2019

A letter from the Editor

Gorazd Golob


The first issue of the Journal in 2019 is comprised of five papers, with a total of 86 pages, more than average in the previous year. The trend is positive.

Again, topics from a broad border area appear, that at the same time indicate research trends in the field of print and media, which for a long time is not only traditional printing of books and booklets, newspapers, and magazines.

The first original scientific paper published in the present issue covers the field of printing of the nucleic acid. It is from the research area that can be considered conditionally as the field of bio-printing, however, it is interesting also because of the selected methods for evaluation of the results of the experiment, based on the fluorescence measurement method that is probably not well known to established and more traditionally oriented researchers in our field. The second paper presents the research results of an improved method for the production of a printing form for pad-printing, which enables the use of this printing technique for the printing of electronic devices.

Two review papers follow. The first deals with low-cost chipless RFID tags, which some years ago promised a revolution in the labelling of products in retail sales, it, however, did not happen due to too high tag price. With the development of technology presented in the paper, it is becoming increasingly topical. Another review paper deals with augmented reality and print media, which is bringing additional functionality to the print media and hence new opportunities in the future.

The last paper deals with movie genres, their characterization, and recognisability. Despite some dilemmas regarding the scope, it has been accepted as an interesting example of media coverage, including movie and video.

Our editor Markéta Držková again prepared Topicalities section with an overview of news in the field, new literature and interesting events. The presented patents on printing inks, granted to inventors and assignees in 2018, are covering traditional and digital printing techniques, and are dedicated also to speciality and security print products, printed electronics and sensors. The news from Enfocus and Ghent Workgroup gives an overview on the latest activities in pre-press. The detailed presentation of UK’s Centre for Process Innovation shows state of the art research capabilities in the field of printed electronics with a detailed introduction of research labs and advanced commercial printing equipment for prototype and small scale production.

In the Bookshelf the latest editions are listed, covering typography and design, graphic communication business and library technologies, printed electronics, sensors, 3D printing, and even some history, including the transcription and translation of the oldest Spanish printing manual from the end of 17th Century.

Academic dissertations presented are from UK and German universities. The first one was defended at the University of Sheffield by Preeyanuch Voravickositt, who studied users’ needs, experience and e-book collection management in Thai academic libraries. Guohua Hu’s research was from the field of graphene and related 2D materials, nanoengineering and functional printing; the thesis on printable 2D material optoelectronics and photonics was defended at the University of Cambridge. Stephan Pröller defended his thesis on morphology of printed organic solar cells at the Technical University of Munich.

A number of conferences, congresses, trade shows and other events organized worldwide for a next few months show a significant interest of the industry, academic and research institutions for intensive communication and opportunities for the exchange of knowledge, technologies, presentation of their work and interests. Most of the presented events have a long tradition, some are a result of merging and transformation of previously well-known traditional events into more attractive and up to date conferences and trade shows. This is also an opportunity for ambitious new organizers and attendees.

The Journal is currently in good condition, with an appropriate number of submitted papers for publication, currently in review and editing process for next issues. However, we are expecting your valuable research results and interesting submissions, giving us the opportunity to further improve the quality and the status of the Journal in the dedicated research fields and on the lists of indexed journals. The Call for papers is constantly open. Also, your information on interesting events, new books or academic publications from the fields covered by the Journal will be taken into consideration by the associate editor Markéta Držková (

Ljubljana, March 2019

A test system for the printing of functional nucleic acids onto different carriers and verification of its functionality by DNA dyes

Jacqueline Stamm1, Dieter Spiehl1, Jeannine Jaeger2,Florian Groher2, Tobias Meckel3Beatrix Suess2 and Edgar Dörsam1
Institute of Printing Science and Technology, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Magdalenenstraße 2, 64289 Darmstadt
Department of biology, synthetic genetic circuits, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Schnittspahnstraße 10, 64287 Darmstadt
Macromolecular and Paper Chemistry, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Alarich-Weiss-Straße 8, 64287 Darmstadt


The creation of inkjet printed biosensors belongs to rising applications of functional printing. One of their many uses is the detection of antibiotic residues in milk or meat from food-producing animals, which have been excessively treated. For example, they are treated with the fluoroquinolone ciprofloxacin (CFX), which we want to detect with an aptamer-based fluorescence biosensor, printed onto a carrier material. For that purpose, inkjet printing and several carrier materials are analyzed in their ability to obtain the functionality of nucleic acids. The printing process is analyzed by characterizing DNA and buffer solutions and by comparing printed with unprinted DNA using an agarose-gel test. The carrier materials are preselected by analyzing the auto-fluorescence excitation and emission spectra of ten different materials out of which three with the lowest intensity at the CFX excitation and emission peaks are chosen. After printing with DNA onto these materials, the fluorescence induced with DNA dyes is measured. The experiments show that nucleic acids can be inkjet printed without damage and that many foils and papers commonly used in the laboratory show auto fluorescence when excited in the UV-spectrum. Other properties of the carrier materials are important as well. Here a selection containing the paper Whatman Grade 1, the foil Hostaphan GUV 4600 and the nitrocellulose HF 120 are compared in their ability to sustain the functionality of nucleic acids printed onto them. Although, we were able to select a suitable material for future experiments of printing a CFX-biosensor, there are still open questions concerning the interactions between nucleic acids and different carrier materials.

Keywords: inkjet, aptamers, fluorescence, ciprofloxacin, biosensor

JPMTR 117 | 1821 Original scientific paper
DOI 10.14622/JPMTR-1821
UDC 655:577.1+577.2-035.67|542.9-9

Received: 2018-12-09
Accepted: 2019-01-30

Assessing and improving edge roughness in pad-printing by using outlines in a one-step exposure process for the printing form

Christina Bodenstein, Hans Martin Sauer, Felipe Fernandes and Edgar Dörsam
Institute of Printing Science and Technology, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Magdalenenstraße 2, 64289 Darmstadt


We describe the specificities of the pad-printing form production. In printing experiments, we show the influence of different printing forms, in dependence on raster frequency and printing form material, on the printing quality of pad-printed patterns. A typical defect in pad-printing, the ‘stamp effect’, which occurs as a wavy contour, was determined and traced to the printing form production. By incorporating so-called outlines into the printing form, we were able to reproduce patterns with an edge roughness of less than 3 µm. We provide descriptions of the implementation of these outlines. To measure and analyze the edge roughness and edge defects we developed an image-based method to quantitatively assess the quality of edge patterns. With the use of outlines in the printing form, it seems feasible to use pad-printing for source and drain contact manufacturing on printed thin film transistors. Thus, the reproduction of electrically conductive, interdigital patterns for sources and drains having an electrode distance of less than 10 µm appears possible.

Keywords: stamp effect, wavy contour, Canny edge algorithm, raster, cliché

JPMTR 118 | 1903 Research paper
DOI 10.14622/JPMTR-1903
UDC 762:777.1|77.02(0.033)

Received: 2019-02-05
Accepted: 2019-03-18

Printing of low-cost chipless RFID tags

Sika Shrestha, Ramprakash Yerramilli and Nemai Chandra Karmakar
Department of Electrical and Computer System Engineering, Monash University, Australia


Chipless radio frequency identification (RFID) is a highly attractive and easy-to-operate technology allowing automated scanning of goods without any human intervention. It is a low-cost alternative to chip-based technology with few constraints. The flexibility to use low-cost printing techniques makes the chipless tags cost-effective to be useful as a competitive technology. In this paper, we review and compare the most common printing techniques for fabricating chipless RFID tags. Some of the issues encountered during printing of tags were identified and solutions to achieve better outcome were suggested. Most importantly, the advantages and limitations of the printing techniques were highlighted from a perspective of a vast amount of work done by various research teams worldwide. The review is an attempt to cover the basic aspects of conductive ink printing to fabricate functional chipless RFID tags. It is intended to guide researchers in tag printing using common printing techniques.

Keywords: inkjet printing, screen printing, flexographic printing, gravure printing, automatic identification and data capture technology

JPMTR 119 | 1814 Review paper
DOI 10.14622/JPMTR-1814
UDC 655|004.08-024.72

Received: 2018-07-09
Accepted: 2019-01-04

The application of augmented reality in print media

Merkourios Margaritopoulos and Elissavet Georgiadou
Hellenic Open University – School of Applied Arts, Thessaloniki, Greece


Augmented reality is a growing research field aiming to enhance the elements of the real world by overlaying additional virtual information. The paper presents augmented reality as an efficient tool of renovating the traditional print media. It includes an introduction to its concept, covering its fundamental principles and technologies, and focuses on its application in print media. It examines the ‘augmented print media’ in terms of the related technologies and reports on distinguished examples of augmented newspapers, magazines, books and packaging products. Finally, the paper attempts to point out the role of augmented reality in redefining the position of print media in the digital world. It studies the differences between print and digital media and proves the contribution of augmented reality in upgrading print media to modern communication media.

Keywords: augmented print media, smart mobile devices, fiducial markers, computer vision, virtual information

JPMTR 120 | 1805 Review paper
DOI 10.14622/JPMTR-1805
UDC 004.9-028.25

Received: 2018-02-07
Accepted: 2019-01-11

Analysis of movie genres experiencing when changing post-production stylistic elements of the media

Rok Kompare and Helena Gabrijelčič Tomc
University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Engineering, Department of Textiles, Graphic Arts and Design


In this paper, we have analyzed the changes in four stylistic elements that are present in almost every film and their influence on movie genres experiencing. In the theoretical part a review of studies that proposed different approaches for movie genres categorisation is presented. This is followed by the definition of film genres and investigation of the possibilities of set stylistic parameters and their impact on the film form. The experimental part includes the study how the stylistic elements influence the viewer’s assessment, whether it is possible to determine the genre of the movie based on just one stylistic element and at least how many elements are necessary to determine the correct movie genre. Five movie genres that were analyzed are: action, drama, horror, comedy and science fiction, and the impact of stylistic elements as color correction, camera movement (added in post-production), visual effects and music/sound effects were studied. The observers’ experience about movie genre produced with different stylistic forms was tested with the questionnaire. The results in terms of the number of observers’ correct answers in relation with the recognition of proposed genres and influence of stylistic elements and their combination were statistically analyzed. Based on the statistical analysis it was found out that adding visual effects and music/sound can be sufficient for the correct genre determination. In addition, the research has proved that a combination of two stylistic elements, but only if at least one of them is a visual effect or music/sound, is also sufficient for the correct genre determination. The analysis of the test results revealed that more than half of the respondents correctly identified the genre if at least three parameters were included.

Keywords: color correction, camera movement, visual effects, music and sound, audience testing

JPMTR 121 | 1810 Case study
DOI 10.14622/JPMTR-1810
UDC 778.5:791.22-028.7

Received: 2018-04-04
Accepted: 2019-02-15