December 2023

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Gorazd Golob


The news section of the Journal: Topicalities

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Discrete model of the inking apparatus of offset printing machine

Eldar A. Aliyev and Mehri H. Khanbabaeva


Azerbaijan Technical University, H. Javid Ave. 25, Baku, Azerbaijan, AZ1073 


Nowadays offset printing method is actively used in modern printing houses for printing graphic arts products, and makes it possible to obtain large print runs of high-quality full-color images. Offset printing technology allows to automate a large number of processes and due to this get a low cost of production, and equipment utilization rate. The purpose of this research is to create a scientific basis for structural and mathematical modeling of the inking apparatus of an offset printing machine. To achieve this goal, a discrete model of the ink apparatus was built as a control object associated with the movement and ink flow of the printing process, and the research results were summarized in the form of a mathematical model. Also, a methodology for the distribution of ink layers in the inking apparatus was developed. The inking apparatus is considered a dynamic system formed by a set of rollers and cylinders. The discrete model is based on the actual movement pattern of ink layers, considered as a directed graph. The sections of the trajectory of the ink layer movement are considered as arcs of the graph, and the contact points of rollers are considered as nodes of the graph, which correspond to the thickness of the ink layer for certain nodes and discrete moments of time. The necessary mathematical basis for computer modeling of an inking apparatus of complex structure has been created. The process of dividing the ink layer was described using difference equations. For computer implementation, based on the Gauss method of numerical solution of the systems of linear algebraic equations, software has been developed using the Visual Basic program, which allows to determine the divisions and thickness of the ink layer on the surfaces of the elements of the inking system. The discrete model with the help of difference equations describes the discrete process of division of the ink layer taking into account the time of displacement of the layer on the surfaces of rollers and cylinders. The result of modeling is cyclic processes of ink layer division, generalized in the form of dynamic characteristics. The extension of the proposed methodology to the inking apparatus of complex structure makes it possible to apply this methodology to the study of the inking apparatus of different designs. 

Keywords: mathematical model, ink layer, difference equation, dynamic characteristic

JPMTR-2314 Research paper | 183
DOI  10.14622/JPMTR-2314

UDC 681.6-053.67|53.07 

Received: 2023-10-14
Accepted: 2023-11-26

Static and dynamic-wetting measurements on 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane-functionalized float glass surfaces as a method for indicating adhesion forces

Sarah Patejdl, Ulrich Jung, Christopher Knoth and Patrick Görrn


Bergische Universität Wuppertal, Gaußstraße 20, 42119 Wuppertal, Germany 


Earlier research demonstrated the dependence of 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) wetting properties on cleaning, functionalization, and post-treatment processes on oxide surfaces, e.g., glass surfaces or Si wafer surfaces, but not on float glass surfaces. Also, oxide glass surfaces were functionalized by different silanes and were applied with ultraviolet (UV) radiation-curable inks or adhesives. The resulting adhesion forces differed depending on the silane and the UV-curable ink or adhesive used. The chemical diversity of silanes leads to different surface energy on glass surfaces and was used to gain further insights into a correlation between wetting properties and the resulting adhesion forces. This work investigates the suitability of dynamic contact angle measurement (DCA) for indicating adhesion forces via contact angle hysteresis and the resulting drop age. Two types of test fluids (diiodomethane and water) are applied on hydrophilic float glass surfaces (air side and tin side) and on a hydrophobic PE foil surface. The functionalization of glass substrates is realised by reproducible vapour and solution deposition of APTES, which results in different wetting properties of float glass surfaces. The investigations are complemented by static contact angle measurements of different test fluids, and the appropriate surface energies are evaluated via the Owens, Wendt, Rabel, and Kaelble method. The polar and non-polar surfaces are clearly differentiable by contact angle hysteresis and drop age. The DCA results of the hydrophilic float glass surfaces and the hydrophobic PE foil surface confirm the suitability of using the DCA parameters hysteresis and drop age for indicating adhesion forces on functionalized float glass surfaces. The hysteresis and drop age of assumed completely APTES-functionalized float glass surfaces confirm the suitability of the DCA measurement for indicating adhesion forces, too. The test fluid diiodomethane is suitable for indicating adhesion forces on the air side of the float glass, and the test fluid water is suitable for indicating adhesion forces on the tin side of the float glass. With the increased water contact angle, the hysteresis and drop age increased using the polar test fluid water. This does not support the polarity theory of de Bruyne. By using the non-polar test fluid diiodomethane, the hysteresis and drop age decrease with increasing contact angle and also do not support the adhesion theory of de Bryne. The research results show a way of indicating the adhesion forces of different functionalized float glass surfaces, by using only one silane, and serves as a pre-step for better understanding of e.g. UV-ink adhesion forces dependent on glass surface wetting properties. 

Keywords: dynamic contact angle, hysteresis, drop age, 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane, adhesion

JPMTR-2312 Original scientific paper | 184
DOI  10.14622/JPMTR-2312
UDC 539.6-033.5:519.8|53.08 

Received: 2023-09-14
Accepted: 2023-11-14

TaxoCatalog: expert system for semantically personalizing paper-based product catalogs in omni-channel context using background knowledge

Heiko Angermann 


Hochschule Darmstadt, Faculty of Design, Olbrichweg 10, 64287 Darmstadt, Germany 


Taxonomies are a formal method of semantically structuring information using hierarchically ordered concepts. Those play a crucial role in omni-channel retailing to publish product catalogs across media channels, i.e. digital (portal-based, paper-based) media channels, and print media (paper-based) media channels. Portal-based media channels use taxonomies to structure product-related content by concepts to facilitate customers navigate through the e-commerce site. That are the product categories. Paper-based media channels require taxonomies for automatic layout setting using data-driven publishing software. When recommender systems are additionally used, products are published individually on the e-commerce site. Printed product catalogs, on the other hand, currently only display content regardless of dynamic preferences, unless the layout is set manually. That is, as in an industrial context, personalization is of no interest if the necessary processes cannot be automated. The only recent industrially relevant method of taking preferences into account is to print sub-catalogs. However, these only contain certain product categories, resulting in a loss of information and sales, as preferences change dynamically today. With TaxoCatalog, an expert system is presented in this paper, capable of semantically personalizing product taxonomies to layout printed product catalogs according to the dynamic preferences of customers. The proposed expert system considers three layers to achieve full automation of relevant processes. The first layer uses background knowledge to consider a memory-based analysis of preferences, and a content-based analysis of possible semantic modifications. The second layer infers semantically personalized taxonomies using different modification rules. The third layer transforms the individual taxonomy paths into XML. This allows that the output of TaxoCatalog can be processed by any standard data-driven publishing software for automatic layout setting. A case study and a comprehensive evaluation, which discusses the strengths and limitations of previous research in the field, as well as the expert system in terms of quantitative and qualitative criteria, underline the efficiency of TaxoCatalog. 

Keywords: data-driven publishing, expert systems, page layout, cross-channel publishing, taxonomy

JPMTR-2310 Research paper | 185
DOI  10.14622/JPMTR-2310
UDC 004.891:004.423:025.352 

Received: 2023-08-21
Accepted: 2023-12-26

Global trends in the study of projection mapping technology using bibliometric analysis

Intan Permata Sari, Agus Juhana and Nurhidayatulloh Nurhidayatulloh 


Multimedia Education Study Program, Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia, Bandung, Indonesia 


Projection mapping has emerged as a compelling new medium, experiencing continual growth due to technological innovations across diverse fields, including medicine, communication, and science. Consequently, the volume of articles addressing technological advancements in projection mapping has surged over the past two decades. This article conducts a comprehensive bibliometric analysis on projection mapping technology, employing statistical and publication characteristic analyses to offer insights into research progress and trends spanning from 2003 to 2022. The results, based on 440 documents (journal articles, conference papers, book chapters, conference reviews, reviews, and books) retrieved from the Scopus database on February 9, 2023, indicate a consistent increase in publications on projection mapping technology, although research remains somewhat limited. Utilizing VOSviewer, Microsoft Excel, and Tableau Public, the bibliometric analysis unveils notable authors in the field, highlighting metrics such as the number of citations, country productivity, and key periodicals publishing projection mapping technology content. Iwai, D., from Osaka University emerges as the most prolific author on projection mapping technology, while Ishikawa, M., stands out as the researcher with the highest citation frequency. Japan is identified as the most productive and cited country of origin for researchers in this domain. Notably, “IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics” holds significant influence, having the highest citation count and serving as a vital reference source. Empirical researchers can leverage articles from this journal to track the evolving research topics in projection mapping technology year by year. 

Keywords: research trend, bibliometric analysis, Scopus database, citation

JPMTR-2309 Case study | 186
DOI  10.14622/JPMTR-2309
UDC 655.535.2:303.54:001.8-027.511 

Received: 2023-07-25
Accepted: 2023-12-13