March 2024

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Daniel Bohn


The news section of the Journal: Topicalities

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The relationship between white ink coating weight and color fidelity when blocking chromatic contents in compostable flexible packaging

Juan X. Chonillo, Robert J. Eller


Department of Packaging and Graphic Media Science,, Rochester Institute of Technology,, 69 Lomb Memorial Drive, Rochester, NY 14623, United States of America


As leaders in the consumer goods industry embrace compostable flexible packaging, the challenge lies in maintaining the fidelity of the design colors printed on it. When printing transparent flexible substrates, a white ink underlayer is necessary to reproduce saturated colors. Nevertheless, to comply with American and European compostability standards, white ink coating weight (Ctg Wt) cannot exceed 1 % of the total weight of the package, a limitation that restricts the amount of white ink used in reverse printed compostable packaging to as little as 25 % of the Ctg Wt used today. The objective of this study is to investigate the influence of background color, design color, and Ctg Wt on resulting design color deviations (ΔE00). A supermarket survey was conducted to identify problematic design and background colors used in retail packages. The supermarket survey confirmed that maintaining the fidelity of design colors on reverse printed flexible packages is a problem, even for packages using today’s standard Ctg Wt. The survey identified 91 collation packages where design color fidelity was compromised by the background color. For these packages, blue (in 40 % of the packages), black (in 34 %), and red/brown (in 14 %) were the most commonly encountered background colors. The most commonly compromised design colors were white (41 %), yellow (15 %), green (11 %), orange (11 %), and red (9 %). To analyze the influence of background color, design color, and Ctg Wt on design color deviations (ΔE00), a designed experiment (DOE) was conducted. The DOE explored the relationship between design color deviations and six levels of background color, six levels of design color, and two levels of Ctg Wt. The DOE showed that all three main effects (background color, design color, Ctg Wt) are significant at the .001 level. The DOE also showed that all of the interactions (three two-way interactions and one three-way interaction) are significant at the 0.05 level. After adjusting for the number of degrees of freedom, Ctg Wt had the most pronounced influence on design color deviations (ΔE00), followed by design color, and, more distantly, by the background. The strongest interaction was shown to be design color cross background color. Finally, the psychophysical causes of this interaction were identified for several design color cross background color pairs (e.g. yellow design color cross bright red background color).

Keywords: white ink underlayer, ΔE00, rotogravure, design color, background color, chromatic backing, supermarket survey

JPMTR-2311 Original scientific paper| 187
DOI 10.14622/JPMTR-2311
UDC 676.2:667.6:628.97:55.089.87


Received: 2023-09-07
Accepted: 2024-02-07


Embracing integrated tech in graphic communications: Industry 5.0 perspectives

Lucille Trepanier, Areej Syeda, Reem El Asaleh


School of Graphic Communications Management, Toronto Metropolitan University, Toronto, ON, Canada


This study provides a holistic overview of integrated technologies, covering examples such as automation, artificial intelligence (AI), the internet of things (IoT), big data (BD), machine learning (ML), and extended reality (XR) and their applications within the graphic communications industry. By leveraging a systematic literature review utilizing both quantitative and qualitative publications, this study aims to answer the following question: “In the graphic communications industry, do the implementations of integrated technologies have an impact on the quality of performance of organizations and the users who have adopted them in the previous 10 years?”. Identified publications are selected in order to contain a variety of different perspectives from a multitude of authors to make it clear that new approaches containing unprecedented use of integrated technologies are bringing continuous development and change, both positive and negative. They will reshape our current approach to technology in the graphic communications industry and will therefore transform the way lives are lived. A pilot study was conducted by Syeda and El Asaleh in 2022 about the integrated technologies available in the graphic communications industry. This study expands on previously existing research, now encompassing a more in-depth analysis to continue to shed light on existing implementation. These new opportunities and existing limitations will aid in determining the path the future of the graphic communications industry will take in the revolution of Industry 5.0. This paper is part of ongoing research at The Creative School of Toronto Metropolitan University (Formerly known as Ryerson). It will serve as a basis on which further research will be conducted, as the topic is one that is often neglected and overlooked within the field of graphic communications.

Keywords: artificial intelligence, automation, integrated technology, graphic communication, Industry 5.0, human capital

JPMTR-2320 Original scientific paper| 188
DOI 10.14622/JPMTR-2320
UDC 655.5:004:658.57


Received: 2023-11-30
Accepted: 2024-02-22


Generative artificial intelligence integrations and applications

Hanna Gilreath

E-mails: hgibson@clemson.edua

Clemson, 200 Godfrey Hall, Clemson,SC 29634, United States


Generative artificial intelligence (AI) systems are changing the landscape of communication in every capacity. This is seen in written, oral, and visual methods of communication. For educational degree programs such as graphic communication programs, like those found at Clemson and Cal Poly, this is a difficult technology advancement to navigate. Previously, these programs have been a home for creative students’ hopeful to pursue a career in a science and creative communication field within the printing or digital media industries. New technology integrating into the classroom daily such as Chat GPT, Adobe Firefly, and Midjourney are quickly changing the education landscape. This leaves students and educators left to answer the questions of how to adapt these new technologies into the classroom and if it should be part of a formal education program. The first step in making these informed decisions is to better understand the attitudes, apprehensions, and level of comfort of students in Clemson and Cal Poly degree programs toward generative AI systems. To collect metrics on these attitudes, a five–point Likert Scale survey that was distributed to students enrolled in Clemson and Cal Poly graphic communication programs has been formulated. The data collected provided clarity that students have a high level of ethical apprehension toward generative AI systems despite adopting the technology in their everyday lives. In addition, the data results provided clarity that students, regardless of class standing, have a high level of fear surrounding job security and the impact that generative Artificial Intelligence will have on the communication job market post–graduation.

Keywords: generative artificial intelligence, graphic communication, education

JPMTR-2401 Research paper| 189
DOI 10.14622/JPMTR-2320
UDC 655.5:004:658.57


Received: 2024–01–08
Accepted: 2024–04–05