September-October 2017

A letter from the editor
Gorazd Golob

Editor-in-chief

In the third 2017 issue of the Journal, three papers are published, from different areas of research interest. The first one covers a digital proof and small volume printing samples of very sensitive and demanding hues of the wood grain. Authors of the paper are reporting on the research results of metamerism issues and resulting colour differences when different ICC colour profiles are used and the influence of the coat and release coat characteristics on the final results.

The second paper presents the results of the comparative study of the application of two different methods in colour management in professional digital colour photography, namely the widely known and used ICC colour profiles and the DNG method, proposed by Adobe. The interesting first results are encouraging, however, the advantages and disadvantages of both methods are calling for further research.

The third paper is from the field of media studies. The role and impact of Facebook and WhatsApp social media on people affected by the Chennai floods in 2015 is reported, together with the use of the same communication channels by volunteers, police officials and various organizations giving first aid, support and supplying various goods and transportation to the victims. The positive experience of the use of social media in giving help, activation of the people and for communication between them and with their families and all others involved in rescue operations and support in case of natural disaster was confirmed.

In the Topicalities an overview of newly published or only updated and reconfirmed ISO standards is given by Markéta Držková (marketa.drzkova@jpmtr.org), together with some news from EU supported research, advances in 3D and 4D printing and 150 years anniversary celebration of Agfa, well-known company in printing. Interesting overview of the books from the field shows a wide interest of the authors and users by covering lighting reliability, necessary in advanced visual communication, image processing field, colour theory and measurement, up to materials used in printed electronics applications and next generation of displays. The readers who are interested in publications dedicated to different world regions may be interested in African and Arabic print culture and collection of reviewed papers from China Academic Conference on Printing, Packaging Engineering and Media Technology.

Three doctoral theses are presented in Bookshelf section. Fanny Tricot defended her thesis on rewritable films on flexible substrates in Grenoble. Topics of her research include laser marking technologies on glass and non-rigid substrates by using spin coating, inkjet and flexographic techniques and formulation of the inks and characterization of final results. Tuomas Happonen defended his thesis on bending resistance of printed conductors on flexible substrates in Oulu. His research was dedicated to cyclic bending of flexible screen-printed substrates with different inks, different thickness and testing of the properties of the samples. Enrico Sowade defended his thesis on inkjet printing of photonic structures and thin-film transistors in Chemnitz. His research includes a study of material properties, demonstration of inkjet as micro- and nano-engineering technology, and also covers a study and optimization of all-inkjet production lines for transistor arrays. An overview of conferences and other events from the area of printing, packaging, materials and related fields is wrapping up Topicalities.

In September, the 44th International Research Conference of iarigai was held in Fribourg, Switzerland. The first research paper in this issue is revised and extended research report, already presented at the Conference. All other attendees, some of them with very impressive contributions, have already been invited to prepare and submit their full papers to the Journal. The Journal is currently the most important international peer-reviewed publication in the field of print and media technology research. With indexing and abstracting in Emerging Sources Citation Index (ESCI), the opportunities are open to all the authors with papers cited in the indexed journals, to gain in reputation and impact. This will also be an advantage for the Journal of Print and Media Technology Research, which will thus become recognized as important publishing channel in the field. Also, the confirmation from Scopus regarding indexing and abstracting in their database is near and will hopefully be confirmed in the next issue.

The Call for papers is constantly open for submission of high quality original scientific, research and review papers, including case studies, and also for publication of technical papers and professional communication. We are expecting your papers anytime, and we will do our best in double-blind peer-review, editing, and publishing process.

Ljubljana, October 2017

JPMTR 098 | 1708 Research paper

DOI 10.14622/JPMTR-1708

UDC 774.8|7.026-0353

Received: 2017-08-24

Accepted: 2017-10-25

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3-17

 

Decreasing metamerism of inkjet printed wood grain

Vinay Anil Turke1, Paul D. Fleming2, Veronika Husovska3 and Alexandra Pekarovicova2

E-mails: vturke@proedgefilms.com; dan.fleming@wmich.edu; v.husovska@pressburgllc.com; a.pekarovicova@wmich.edu

1 ProEdge Inc., 23326 Shelby Road, Shelby, IN 46377

2 Center for Printing and Coating Research, Western Michigan University, 4601 Campus Drive, A-217 Parkview, Kalamazoo, MI 49008

3 Pressburg, LLC, Kalamazoo, MI 49008

Abstract

Today, the competitive environment in the graphics communication industry is demanding the printer to produce good quality products within short periods of time. To ensure quality reproduction of print jobs, prototyping is necessary. Rotogravure cannot be used for prototyping, because of high manufacturing cost of gravure cylinders. Such challenges can be successfully tackled by use of relatively cheap and flexible printing processes, such as inkjet. Even though inkjet printing is a cost-effective way for prototyping, it has its own limitations, especially in the case of wood grain printing. Wood grain patterns need to be printed with a release coating and adhesive. Inkjet printers are incapable of printing either release coating or adhesive, because they require a certain amount of coat weight, not possible to deliver with inkjet printing. Inaccurate color reproduction, metamerism and incompatibility with release coat are the commonly seen problems during inkjet prototyping. The main aim of this study was to resolve problems such as metamerism and close color match of inkjet and gravure printed wood grain. A design of experiments (DOE) was carried out by using different factors such as gray component replacement (GCR) settings, release coat weight and use of tie coat to analyze their effect on metamerism. Custom created ICC profiles decreased the metamerism index (MI) and ∆E*ab significantly, when compared with the generic RIP printer profile. Manual GCR adjustment in addition to custom created ICC profiles decreased MI further, but at the same time increased ∆E*ab to some extent.

Increased GCR settings had considerable impact on MI, which varied per color shade. The ICC profiles for the 7 g/m2 release coat plus tie coat and 10.5 g/m2 release coat plus tie coat substrate were created with 160 % total ink limit values, whereas 7 g/m2 release coat and 10.5 g/m2 release coat samples without any tie coat were profiled with 180 % and 200 % total ink limit, respectively. Higher total ink limit samples on 10.5 g/m2 release coat with no tie coat showed
the highest color gamut volume and lowest total ink limit, while 7 g/m2 release coat plus tie coat showed the smallest color gamut volume. ANOVA statistical analysis showed that GCR setting was the most influential factor on MI followed by the use of the tie coat. Release coat weight was an insignificant factor for MI.

Keywords: inkjet, rotogravure, metamerism, color match, gray component replacement

JPMTR 099 | 1710 Research paper

DOI 10.14622/JPMTR-1710

UDC 535.6|7.021|77.067

Received: 2017-10-11

Accepted: 2017-10-30

Comparison of ICC and DNG colour profile workflows based on colorimetric accuracy

Jure Ahtik

E-mail: jure.ahtik@ntf.uni-lj.si

University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Engineering, Snežniška 5, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia

Abstract

Managing colours is important for every photographer. In this paper, two of the solutions were described and researched: ICC colour profiles and DNG colour profiles. While ICC is a well-established and commonly used option, there are some disadvantages when it comes to time, price, and understanding; DNG colour profiles offer us a good response to these disadvantages but as a result the quality of colour corrections is lower. This paper gives the exact answers on how big the colour difference between both processes is and what the cases are when the use of ICC or DNG colour profiles is advised. The main focus of the research is a usability of both workflows.

Keywords: digital photography, colour management, colour reproduction, colour test chart, white balance

JPMTR 100 | 1707 Case study

DOI 10.14622/JPMTR-1707

UDC 659.3(255)

Received: 2017-08-18

Accepted: 2017-10-31

A study on Facebook and WhatsApp during Chennai floods 2015

N. Bhuvana and I. Arul Aram

E-mails: br.mediastudies@gmail.com; arulram@yahoo.com

Department of Chemistry, Anna University, Chennai-600025

Abstract

In December 2015, unexpected floods occurred in Chennai, which was officially declared a disaster city, and was puzzled as to what Nature had for it next. The then isolated city had all its sources of communication cut, except access to Facebook and WhatsApp through mobile phones that enabled timely update on flood news and weather forecast, a way to connect with family and friends to ensure safety, putting out SOS signals and listing out worst-affected areas that needed volunteering and basic items such as food, water and other relief to the citizens. Chennai has 3.5 million (35 lakhs) Facebook users browsed through a smartphone. Likewise, WhatsApp is used as the top smartphone app by 96 per cent of people in India. Various features of it went viral in spreading information which brought food, clothing, shelter, support and love from all ends of the globe. Apart from individuals, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and other stakeholders also used both Facebook and WhatsApp actively during the crisis. This paper aims to provide a better understanding of how NGOs used Facebook and WhatsApp to engage with the victims during Chennai floods 2015. The results revealed that Facebook was used by NGOs to reach out the public for getting help in the rescue, relief and rehabilitation for the victims. Whereas, WhatsApp was used by various organizations, police officials and volunteers to communicate with them once on the field and also off the field. With respect to residents of Kotturpuram, the use of WhatsApp for the above set indicators seemed more timely during Chennai flood 2015 than Facebook. The usage of these communication media had turned the citizens as activists and made them take control over the situation and bounce back to normalcy during Chennai floods 2015.

Keywords: citizens, disaster management, Kotturpuram, social media