March 2016

A letter from the editor

Gorazd Golob



We came to the first issue of the Journal of this year, which is, at the same time the first online issue, with new assigned ISSN 2414-6250 (Online).

This change means great improvement of the distribution of the Journal, which will hopefully become available more widely to all researchers, professionals, students and others who are interested in innovations in the printing and media technology, as well as the study and development of all forms of print and media communication. All recipients of digital version of the Journal are invited to disseminate this publication and inform their colleagues and co-workers at their institution, through the library, or in another appropriate manner, to provide access to all those who are entitled to it, thus primarily members of iarigai – The International Association of Research Organizations for the Information, Media and Graphic Arts Industries, and subscribers. All other interested readers can access the archive copies free of charge, they are invited to become a subscriber or to order access to certain recent papers published in current issues.

In this edition six research papers are published, again the most basic research areas covered by the Journal are included: the challenges on printed electronics, the challenges of varnishing in flexography with water-based inks and varnishes, evaluation of color spaces in a color managed print processes, the effectiveness of advertising messages with large posters, portraits used for the protection of banknotes against counterfeiting and the use of CSS3 tools for online publishing in prepress. Approaches of the authors to such various topics, of course, vary considerably, however they also presents challenges for the reviewers and editors. Their efforts are recognized as an important contribution to the comprehensive development of the common research field.

Markéta Držková ( provided again an overview of defended thesis, new interesting publications and events. In 2016 we are all expecting drupa in Düsseldorf, Germany, which will once again outline the guide- lines for our development in the coming years. After the economic crisis, major technological revolutions, changes in consumer habits and expectations, the first research projects and their realization in the field of new media, printed electronics, functional and industrial printing, will be reliably reflected at this event. We can expect a confirmation of our expectations, and new challenges and ideas for the future. Some of our research activities, oriented into future, will be evident in the next issue of the Journal, dedicated to ‘Audience, business and design factors in new media innovation’. Special edition will be edited by the guest editors David Frohlich and John Mills.

Next major event is an international research conference iarigai in Toronto, which will be carried out this year already in August. The deadline for submissions has already expired, however we still have sufficient time for registration and participation in the event, which every year significantly impacted our community.

iarigai offers a new opportunity to researchers with a call to the iarigai Research Grant, which is mainly dedicated to researchers from member institutions, given them an opportunity for closer integration and exchange of experience in print and media research field. These activities are opening access to cutting-edge research equipment, the creation of new teams, exchanging of new ideas and closer cooperation between institutions. We are expecting excellent research results and we will be happy to post resulting new papers in one of the next issues of the Journal.

Ljubljana, March 2016

JPMTR 073 | 1513 Research paper

DOI 10.14622/JPMTR-1513

Received: 2015-12-25

UDC 621.38 : 667.5 | 678.6-024.25

Accepted: 2016-02-26




Improving the electrical performance and mechanical properties of conductive ink on thin compound substrate

Andreas Willfahrt, Thomas Fischer, Gunter Hübner

Stuttgart Media University, Nobelstrasse 10, D-70569 Stuttgart, Germany; E-mail:;;


In printed electronics applications, very often conductive lines have to be printed and there are several ink/paste and substrate combinations to choose from. Silver ink is usually used due to its high electrical conductivity. Carbon black and PEDOT:PSS are also very common. Substrates are available in a broad variety. Flexibility, good adhesion of the ink, processability, and a maximum processing temperature compatible with the curing temperature of the functional inks is important. If barrier properties, e.g. against the permeation of oxygen, carbon dioxide or water vapour are required, a compound substrate may be necessary, consisting of two or more layers of different materials. The motivation for this investigation was the need for improving the stability and processability of a given substrate chosen for printed batteries. The substrate consists of three layers, namely polyethylene (PE), aluminium and polyethylene terephthalate (PET). This compound foil is rather thin (100 µm) and very flexible. This is a major requirement for the application. The aluminium sandwiched between two polymer layers provides sufficient barrier properties. PET is commonly used as a substrate for printed electronic applications. PE is not as easy to print on, but with e.g. plasma treatment the adhesion of printing inks is sufficient. The weldability of PE is beneficial for the screen-printed battery application, although poor printability without surface treatment and the thermal mismatch of the asymmetric polymer compound (PE–PET) renders processing rather difficult. In this work, the authors examined a route for printing on PE without the need of pre-treatment of the substrate with plasma or corona. Instead, it was found that an UV-ink layer used as adhesion promoter provided sufficient adhesion and improved mechanical stability, i.e. cohesion of the successively printed silver ink layer. Additionally, the thermal treat- ment of the conductive ink was optimized by comparing heat press and hot stamp curing with batch oven curing.

Keywords: printed electronics, printed battery, conductive ink, UV-curing, laminated substrate

JPMTR 074 | 1425 Research paper

DOI 10.14622/JPMTR-1425

Received: 2014-07-15

UDC 655.1 : 667.7

Accepted: 2016-03-01

Improvement of abrasion resistance by over-varnishing in the case of water-based flexographic printing

Marta Gajadhur, Agnieszka Steć

Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Production Engineering, Institute of Mechanics and Printing, Department of Printing Technology, 2 Konwiktorska Street, 00-217 Warsaw, Poland; E-mail:;


The objective of the research was to analyse the abrasion resistance in flexographic printing with water-based inks, covered with different water-based varnishes. Print rub-off tests in the Ink Rub Tester were performed for one water-based ink and three different water-based varnishes used in flexographic printing. The rub-off resistance was evaluated by spectrophotometric methods and visual observations. The ΔE*ab parameter was used in evaluation. The 3D optical microscope was used to analyse the obtained test results. It was observed that the varnishing process significantly improves the abrasion resistance of the prints. The type of the varnish used in the research does not have such an influence on improvement of abrasion resistance as that of the varnishing process itself. Considering the average surface roughness it could be deduced that the varnishing process increases the surface roughness for both the paper base and for the polyethylene foil. The greater the surface roughness the better is the resistance to abrasion.

Keywords: water-based ink, water-based varnish, surface roughness, spectrophotometric measurement, ΔE*ab colour difference

JPMTR 075 | 1505 Research paper

DOI 10.14622/JPMTR-1505

Received: 2015-08-03

UDC 159.937 : 744.8

Accepted: 2016-01-21

Evaluation and use of gamut information in ICC output profiles

Reem El Asaleh, Diondra Filicetti, Abhay Sharma

School of Graphic Communications Management, Ryerson University, 350 Victoria Street, Toronto M5B 2K3, Canada; E-mail:


A device’s color gamut is an important parameter in color managed workflows. With the increasing use of expanded gamut workflows and the need for more colorful products in large-format inkjet printing or packaging, the management and prediction of in-gamut colors is critical information for the content creator. When device color capability information is stored within the structure of an ICC profile, this information becomes readily available to any software utilizing the ICC profile in conjunction with an image or image data. A product may for example offer a gamut stain or warning to indicate to the user that the color under consideration is out of gamut of the destination print process. This research compares the gamut predictions of Adobe Photoshop, ArgyllCMS, BabelColor PatchTool, Esko Color Engine Pilot, Little CMS and MathWorks MATLAB. It is shown that the different tools may use different methods to determine the color gamut of a system. In general, the methods available include a Round Trip test, use of the ICC profile Gamut Tag and a Gamut Boundary Descriptor process. The Gamut Tag was read-in and displayed for different ICC profiles and differences in the tag contents was demonstrated. In total, 1729 CIELAB values, representing the PANTONE+ Solid Coated Library V2 were used and the percentage of in-gamut values using each software product was computed for different output print processes. There was a large difference in the predictions between the different products tested; the software tools vari- ously predicted that 30–65 % of the library was in-gamut. A general philosophy of an ICC workflow is predictable result; while the ICC architecture is not intended to change a device’s gamut capabilities, it should be able to communicate accu- rate and consistent gamut information. As more and more software systems are starting to present gamut data, it is impor- tant that systems do not predict disparate results.

Keywords: color gamut, color management, lookup tables, PANTONE, ICC Gamut Tag

JPMTR 076 | 1601 Research paper

DOI 10.14622/JPMTR-1601

Received: 2016-01-07

UDC 159.937 : 659.1

Accepted: 2016-02-26

The influence of location-related factors on the perception of billboard advertising

Janine Spieß and Ulrich Nikolaus

Leipzig University of Applied Sciences (HTWK Leipzig), Faculty of Media, Gustav-Freytag-Straße, 42, 04277 Leipzig, Germany; E-mail:;


The impact that printed out-of-home advertisements have on the consumer’s perception is dependent on several location-related factors. For a long time, however, this influence was only indirectly gathered by measuring the relative performance of different locations of billboard advertising: Advertising agencies were traditionally only measuring consumer movement patterns and estimating “exposure opportunities”, but no real visual contacts. In this paper, the influence of the factors competition, distance, environmental complexity, occlusion and viewing angle, used with increasing frequency to improve those estimates on billboard perception, is analyzed using eye tracking technology. Two slightly different walks through a city environment are simulated, and changes in gaze behavior due to a variation of the aforementioned location-related factors are recorded and compared. The results confirm the impact of the environmental complexity and occlusion factors, whereas the influence of the other factors is lower or less conclusive. The results presented in this paper help to better understand how these factors affect human attention and allow for a more precise comparison of the relative importance of these location-related factors on the consumer’s perception. Furthermore, they might help to improve existing advertisement measurement systems.

Keywords: eye tracking, visual perception, human attention, billboard location, consumer’s perception

JPMTR 077 | 1508 Research paper

DOI 10.14622/JPMTR-1508

Received: 2015-11-01

UDC 743 : 336.74 | 7.061

Accepted: 2016-02-24

Features contributing to the genuineness of portraits on banknotes

Osamu Masuda1,2, Marius Pedersen1, Jon Y. Hardeberg1

1 The Norwegian Colour and Visual Computing Laboratory, NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Teknologivegen 22, N-2815 Gjovik, Norway; E-mail:

2 Department of Orthoptics and Visual Sciences, Niigata University of Health and Welfare, 1398 Shimami-cho, Kita-ku, Niigata 950-3198 Japan


Portraits have been thought to be one of the most important security features on banknotes for a long time. Portraits are often printed as the main feature of banknotes at a very high resolution in intaglio press. We tried to investigate on how important portraits actually are and what factors were contributing to the perceived genuineness of portraits on banknotes with a psychometric experiment. Banknotes were presented to subjects, enclosed in envelopes to cover the area other than the portrait, and the genuineness of those banknotes were rated. The factors affecting the rating were asked to the subjects at the same time. It was suggested that natural wear and tear strengthen the perceived genuineness of tested banknotes. Even though the inspection of the banknotes was restricted to on and around the portrait, the importance of the portrait was not high compared to other features, and a significant fraction of subjects answered that they paid no attention to any part of the face, which requires reflection and reconsideration of the use of human portraits as a security feature.

Keywords: intaglio printing, security printing, counterfeit deterrence, image quality, face perception

JPMTR 078 | 1512 Research paper

DOI 10.14622/JPMTR-1512

Received: 2015-12-22

UDC 7.012 : 004.91

Accepted: 2016-03-07

Formatting print layouts with CSS3

Christin Götz, Ulrich Nikolaus

Leipzig University of Applied Sciences (HTWK Leipzig), Gustav-Freytag-Str. 42, 04277 Leipzig, Germany; E-mail:;


Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) have already been the de facto standard for the visual representation of digital content for some time now. However, advanced functions intended for the formatting of print layouts have been included only recently. With CSS level 3, which is still under development, several new features have been added to the standard, such as, for example, the definition of marginalia, footnotes, running heads or the support for advanced micro-typographic settings like OpenType features. In theory, these new features could be the key to a significant simplification of cross-media publishing, based only on the use of XML or (X)HTML and CSS3. In this paper, the current status of implementation of CSS3 features for the formatting of XML-based print layouts is discussed and its current support by rendering engines analyzed. The results suggest that CSS3 can be used at present for the formatting of simply structured content, but not for visually or semantically complex print layouts.

Keywords: eXtensible Markup Language, Cascading Style Sheets, cross-media publishing, electronic publishing, rendering engine